How does late 20th and early 21st century literature employ no more than two of the following: home/homecoming; the pastoral; urban; myth; history; the familial?

How does late 20th and early 21st century literature employ no more than two of the following: home/homecoming; the pastoral; urban; myth; history; the familial?

Before looking at home in relation to The Beauty Queen of Leenane, it is important to first define exactly what ‘home’ means, and the differences between ‘a house’ and ‘a home.’ To begin, we will first look at the rudimentary definition of a house. The Oxford Dictionary defines ‘house’ as ‘a building for human habitation,’ placing specific importance upon the building itself, with no mention of the interpersonal/familial relationships within the house. [1]

In a more specific way, it has been argued that ‘the house’ can be seen as ‘a handy catch-all term for any constructed place of dwelling in which people conduct the multitude of activities encompassed by the verb ‘to live’.’ [2] This presents a more complete definition of the ‘house,’ hinting at least at some of the basic human activities which the dwelling allows. When looking at the differences between the home and the house, this is an important aspect, as it is continually argued that ‘a home is more than just a roof over your head. It’s the place where you can bring up a family, put down roots and thrive.’[3]

This idea of difference between the house and the home is further developed in the article House vs. Home, as it states that ‘we can inhabit a house or its cousins—apartment, trailer, hotel room—and not be remotely at home.’[4] This reiterates the idea of a home being more than a house, with the use of the pronoun ‘we’ suggesting a sense of society’s agreement to this difference. This article then continues, looking further at the etymology of the world house, stating that ‘the root of “house…” embraces the sense of hiding, but not necessarily of belonging.’ [5] This again highlights the way in which a home is more than just bricks and mortar.

Robert Frost’s poem Death of The Hired Man discusses this relationship with home, as Frost states ‘Home is the place where, when you have to go there, // They have to take you in.’[6]

This depicts a definite sense of belonging, which in this extract refers not only to the house itself, but also the family or community unit. For Frost, the concept of home is one which is welcoming, forgiving, and indeed, ‘something you somehow haven’t to deserve.’[7] This develops the concept of home being more than just a building, as there is in-fact no reference to a house at all, with Frost stating that home is ‘the place,’ instead of ‘the building,’ further emphasizing the importance of the family and friendships associations in regards to a home.

When looking at the home life of Mag and Maureen, it is important to look at the house itself, as it is repeatedly suggested that a home is ‘something in excess of its primary function as artificial shelter,’ with the house reflecting ‘something of the culture of the society in which it was built.’ [8] This idea of a home reflecting cultural identity can be seen in the Folan’s house, as the cottage itself represents the traditional Irish cottage often depicted in Irish literature such as Padraic Colum’s An Old Woman of the Roads and Michael Longeley’s Home Away From Home, with Adam Hanna that these cottages were ‘revered for the distinctive way of life.’ [9]

Aside from this classic representation of the cottage itself, many of the items depicted in the house relate to Irish tradition, suggesting that the concept of ‘Irishness’ is an important aspect of their home.

This is evident when it is a stated that there is ‘‘a crucifix and a framed picture of John and Robert Kennedy on the wall above the range.’[10] These are both considered important aspects of the Irish national identity, with the crucifix symbolizing the importance of the catholic church in Ireland, and the pictures of John and Robert Kennedy highlighting national pride, with it being acknowledged by many that ‘the Kennedy family are seen as representing an Irish success story.’ [11] Aside from these two items, there are several other effects which provide traditional stereotypes of ‘Irishness’. One of these is the ‘touristy-looking embroidered tea towel… bearing the inscription ‘May you be half an hour in Heaven afore the Devil knows you’re dead.’[12] This not only re-emphasises the traditionally religious nature of Ireland but also reflects upon the dialect, with ‘before’ being shortened to ‘afore.’ Aside from this, the fact that the tea towel is described as ‘touristy-looking’ and therefore not necessarily manufactured for locals, suggests that Ireland’s Catholicism is a well known fact of the nation, and that it is now being used as a tourist attraction.

Another signifier of Irish heritage is the inclusion of ‘a box of turf,’ which presents the peat industry, with the term ‘turf’ itself being ‘peat used for fuel.’ [13]

Peat harvesting played an important role in Irish history, with Irish peaklands covering between an estimated ’16.2%’ and ‘20.6%’ of the country’s land area.’ [14] [15] This peat could then be harvested, and used to create fuel and energy. When considering that ‘Ireland has few fossil-energy resources and is highly dependent on energy imports,’ this use of naturally occurring peat allowed the Irish to aim toward ‘energy self-sufficiency’, as it meant that they could produce their own energy and were less reliant upon the imports. [16] [17] This is looked at further in Donal Clarkes 2006 report entitled Brief History of the Peat Industry in Ireland, where he speaks of a 19th and 20th century emphasis on ‘the development of Ireland’s peatlands for fuel and improving the quality of turf as a fuel,’ which provided energy, jobs and income for the nation, with an estimated average production of 4.63 tonnes a year. [18] During the war, the peat industry became an even more valuable service, as in ‘1941 coal imports for domestic use fell drastically,’ which meant that people were more reliant upon peat than before.

After discussing the history of the peat industry and learning the importance of said industry to Irish cultural identity the ‘box of turf’ in Mag and Maureen’s cottage can be seen to embody a symbol of national self-sufficiency.

When considering these nostalgic representations of Irish identity, it important to note that Gerry Smyth and Jo Croft argue in their 2006 text Our House that a home is ‘a place…which expressed something of the identity of the builder or owner or occupier,’ as this would insinuate that  the displays of Irish tradition in the cottage reflect a sense of Irish pride shared by Mag and Maureen. [19]  During the script itself however, it often seems that both characters have issues with different areas of Irish tradition and life, which then makes the audience question why these items are in the cottage at all.

One example of this is the crucifix which is hung on the wall, and the tea-towel which has ‘may you be half an hour in Heaven afore the Devil knows you’re dead’ written on it, with Patrick Lonergan emphasising in Critical Companions: The Theatre and Films of Martin McDonagh that ‘despite the presence of the crucifix, it soon becomes obvious that religion is not a significant presence in any of the characters’ lives.[20] This is made clear when Mag and Ray talk about Ray purchasing a car from Father Welsh, with Mag replying ‘I don’t like Father Walsh – Welsh – at all.’ [21] This not only highlights Mag’s dislike of Father Welsh, but also shows her getting his name wrong, suggesting that she is not an avid church-goer. Although this could be seen as a personal dislike of this particular priest, the conversation then continues on the subject of religion, with Ray stating ‘he punched Mairtin Hanlon in the head once; and for no reason… It’s usually only the older priests go punching you in the head.’[22] Despite the fact that this is not Mag voicing her opinions on the church, the fact that she does not silence or make any remark of disapproval of Ray’s opinion again shows a lack of empathy towards the church, with her instead stating ‘there was a priest in the news Wednesday had a babby with a Yank!.’ [23]

For Lonergan this is ‘an obvious reference to the Bishop of Galway Eamon Casey, who was forced to resign in 1992 when it was revealed that he had fathered a child,’ with him adding that ‘Casey’s actions caused outrage in Ireland, but for Mag and Ray they are inconsequential, a boring subject even as gossip.’ [24] This again depicts that Mag and Ray are uninterested in the politics surrounding church, as at the time when the text was written many people who did follow Catholicism in Ireland would have been offended by Mag’s trivialisation of such a disgraceful event. When considering the enormity of Casey’s disgrace Rays response in itself again reiterates that neither of them are even aware of how big a deal this is, as he states ‘that’s not news at all. That’s everyday. It’d be hard to find a priest who hasn’t had a babby with a Yank.’ [25] This not only shows their ignorance to the abomination that Casey caused the church, but also portrays a complete lack of respect for all priests, and therefore Catholicism.

This shows a blatant disregard for the church, and in turn makes the audience question why Mag has a crucifix in her kitchen if she does not follow the religion.

Another example of Mag’s behaviour which raises questions in regard to the amount of Irish paraphernalia is the way that her and Maureen argue about the Irish language. This begins when Mag speaks of ‘an oul fella singing nonsense’ on the radio, with Maureen replying ‘it isn’t nonsense… Isn’t it Irish?’ [26] This shows that Mag has no respect for her national language, as she states ‘it sounds like nonsense to me,’ asking ‘why can’t they just speak English like everybody?’ [27] When considering that the kitchen has items such as turf which present national pride, it is again difficult to understand why Mag so easily disrespects an important aspect of Irish identity.

Maureen’s response however contrasts her mothers, with her asking ‘why should they speak English,’ stating ‘it’s Irish you should be speaking in Ireland.’[28] This response shows hostility towards Mag, and the English Language, with this resentment towards England being further demonstrated as Maureen continues by expressing her feelings that ‘if it wasn’t for the English stealing our language, and our land, and our God-knows-what, wouldn’t it be we wouldn’t need to go over there begging for jobs and for handouts.’ [29] Through this it appears that Maureen approves of Irish tradition, whereas Mag disregards important aspects such as the language itself. Despite this, Lonergan underlines a clear irony in Maureen’s argument: ‘the entire conversation is carried out in English,’ which could be seen to prove that ‘Maureen supports the Irish language in principle but appears incapable of supporting it in practice.’ [30] In this way, even Maureen’s protection of Irish could be seen to be redundant, as she does not speak a single word of Irish throughout the entirety of the play, suggesting that the language itself is nothing more than a nationalist concept.

Lonergan continues this idea, stating that these icons of Irishness are ‘quickly’ exposed as empty signifiers – as signposts pointing the audience in wrong directions,’ with Mag’s lack of respect for religion and the Irish language supporting this idea, as ‘the crucifix represents a barely remembered and increasingly irrelevant religion’ in regards to her life. [31]

For Lonergan, it is not just the misplaced crucifix in the cottage which presents an ‘irrelevant’ icon of Irish heritage, with him also looking further at the importance of the Kennedy photo on the wall, speaking of how ‘the Kennedy family are seen as representing an Irish success story,’ as they ‘left the country in relative poverty… and had made it to the White House within four generations.’ [32]  With this in mind, the picture in the cottage again produces a strong icon of Irish heritage, with Lonergan also adding that ‘in Irish drama, the Kennedys are strongly associated with emigration.’ [33] In regards to looking at home and homecoming in McDonagh’s text, it is extremely important then to look at the connotations of the Kennedy’s, as the home-comings in the text are all related to emigration.

When considering the success story of the Kennedy brothers, it is important to look at the ‘tragic ending,’ as ‘both J.F.K. and Robert Kennedy were assassinated,’ which leads to the argument that ‘the presence of their photograph reminds us that the promise offered by emigration will not always be fulfilled.’ [34]

This can in some ways be linked to Maureen’s past emigration to England, with Mag revealing to Pato that Maureen ended up in ‘an oul nut-house in England,’ speaking of how ‘I did have to sign her out… and promise to keep her in me care.’ [35] In this way, McDonagh can be seen to discuss issues surrounding Irish emigration.

When looking at the items in Mag and Maureen’s home as a collective group, it can be seen that the contents of the house do not seem to reflect the occupants, and it is argued that this is a technique used by McDonagh to critique the ‘oldfashioned icons of Irishness.’ [36] For Lonergan, it is important to remember that ‘the world of the play is the early 1990s, not the 1960s,’ with him stating that the stereotypical icons such as the tea-towel, the crucix and the photo ‘stand for a period of political optimism that is long past, and has no bearing on contemporary Ireland.’ [37]

This presents Mag and Maureen’s home as a metaphorical technique used to highlight how out of place these icons of Irishness are, with the fact that Mag does not really seem to care about any of them, simply reinforcing the idea of their out-dated nature. Indeed, when considering this, it could be argued that the only two items in the kitchen which Mag and Maureen are interested in at all are the radio and television, which Lonergan depicts as ‘signifying the influence of the outside world,’ again reflecting the lack of interest in the obsolete figures of Irish heritage and the significance that they place on the rest of civilisation.

Aside from the picture of the Kennedys and Maureen’s instutionalisation in England, there are many other examples of emigration in the play, and this brings the essay to the next section: the representation of home-coming.

The text offers many presentations of home-coming, with perhaps the most developed being that of Pato. The first mention of Pato’s homecoming is divulged by Ray in a conversation with Mag, him mentioning that ‘me brother Pato said to invite you to our uncle’s going-away do,’ and Mag responding ‘is your brother back so… Back from England?’ [38] Although this early introduction to Pato’s homecoming is only a passing comment in conversation, this is developed as a theme through the rest of the text.

One of the ways in which Pato’s homecoming can be seen as one of the most central home-comings in the text is due to the way that he reflects upon the difference between his life in Leenane, and his working life in England.

Pato admits ‘I do ask meself, if there was good work in Leenane, would I stay in Leenane?’ [39] This is Pato’s central question in regards to emigration and home-coming, which are linked throughout the play, as he cannot decide which of these he wants to call his home. This highlights a fundamental difficulty for Pato, as he admits that ‘there never will be good work,’ in Leenane, but can still not help but question whether he would choose a life in Leenane over England if it was available. [40]

Through this McDonagh can be seen to discuss the very concept of home, with Pato contrasting ‘working in rain’ in London where he is ‘more or less cattle,’ with the ‘beautiful’ and ‘green’ landscape of Leenane, and still not being able to feel completely home in either of them. [41] It could be argued that this difficulty which Pato faces when comparing London and Leenane is down to the differing social aspects of both places, with Pato struggling with the way ‘people speak’ in Leenane. [42] This shows his dislike of the gossipy nature of people living in Leenane, and is further expressed when he speaks of how ‘everybody knows everybody else’s business,’ with him stating ‘you can’t kick a cow in Leenane without some bastard holding a grudge twenty year.’[43]

For Pato this portrays his personal crisis, as despite his identity as an Irishman he struggles with the presumptuous gossip that is often affiliated with small rural community. This dislike is further spoken of when he states ‘in England they don’t care care if you live or die,’ stating that it ‘isn’t altogether a bad thing.’[44] Through this, McDonagh presents some of the issues which Irish ‘returnees coming back from abroad’ might have felt as they tried to readapt back from big city life to the rural idyll which they used to call home. [45]

When considering the previous definitions of a home as more than just a house, Pato’s relationship with other’s both in London and Leenane should be discussed. When Pato speaks of people in London he speaks of ‘the young fellas cursing over cards and drunk and sick,’ and yet despite this negative description of the people, he still focuses more on his dislike of gossip in Leenane, suggesting that he feels more at home with these ‘young fellas.’ When speaking of both of his lives he doesn’t mention any friends or close companions in either, and this could indeed be why he finds it difficult to work out which he feels most at home with.

Overall, Pato finds himself with no true home, articulating that ‘when it’s there [in London] I am, it’s here I wish I was…But when it’s here I am… it isn’t there I want to be…But I know it isn’t here I want to be either.’ [46] This represents his frustration at his lack of sanctuary, with him reaching out for a new place to call his home.

One of the difficulties which both Pato and Maureen found when emigrating to England was the language, as it has been argued that although ‘English may have allowed Pato and Maureen to emigrate, but the spectral influence of the Irish language prevents them from ever being fully at home there.’ [47] This ‘spectral influence’ refers to the way in ‘even though Pato and Maureen have abandoned Irish, the language lingers on in their use of English – in their syntax, vocabulary and pronunciation,’ with Irish colloquialisms denying Pato and Maureen the ability to feel completely at home in England. [48] In this way, Ireland as a home has affected their ability to be able to recreate a home away after emigrating, as their English is noticeably different to those indigenous to England.

This is evident when Maureen speaks of the racist comments she received when cleaning offices in Leeds, with her being referred to as an ‘oul backward paddy.’ [49] This shows Maureen being othered for her Irish heritage, with her admitting that ‘it all just got to me.’ [50] When considering this verbal abuse, there is no need to question why Maureen did not feel at home in England, as it is clear that she was constantly made aware of the fact that she was different and that did not belong.

With this in mind, Pato’s emigration to America when offered a job by his uncle can be understood by the audience, as he hopes that he has eventually found a place which he can call home, and accepted for who he is. This shows the importance of suppourt from friends and family in regards to finding the right place for an individual to feel able to grow in themselves, and to settle routes. When the audience learn of this emigration to America they feel happy for Pato and his new chance at life.

In contrast, Maureen and Mag are left behind in Ireland, with ‘‘Home’ for the Folan women’ often thought of as ‘a place to be avoided at all costs, a place to be rescued from, a place quite like a prison.’ [51] In order to understand why this is seen throughout the novel, it is important to look at the family relationship between Maureen and Mag, discussing the ways in which this negative relationship affects the atmosphere of their home.

One important aspect of their relationship which affects their home-life is Mag’s dependency upon Maureen, as Mag seems to take the things that her daughter does for her for granted. One example of this if found in the opening scene, as Mag complains that she doesn’t like making her own Complan, stating that ‘I can [get my own Complan, but] lumpy it is.’ [52] This shows Mag trying to get her daughter to do tasks that she herself can do, comparing her ‘lumpy’ Complan to the way that Maureen ‘do make the Complan nice and smooth,’ with ‘not a lump at all, nor the comrade of a lump.’ [53]

This dependency is often the source of arguments the two, with Maureen then airing her complaints about her mother. This is obvious when looking at the conversation about Complan, as she states ‘you don’t give it a good enough stir is what you don’t do.’ [54] This reply highlights her frustration at her mother lack of independence, with Mag’s refusal to look after herself often being argued as one of the main reasons why  ‘Maureen feels trapped in their small “rural cottage in the west of Ireland,” [55] There are many other examples of this dependency early in the text, with Mag also requesting porridge and cups of tea.

This can be see to contrast the stereotypical image of the mother figure often depicted in literature such as Katharine Tynan’s poem Any Women, where the mother is depicted as the cornerstone of the home. This message is clear in Tynan’s text, as she speaks from the mother’s point of view, stating ‘I am the pillars of the house… without me cold the hearthstone stands.’ [56] This depiction portrays the reverse of Mag and Maureen’s mother/daughter relationship, as it is indeed Maureen who must spreads the board, and who does all of the cooking and preparation.

This reversal of Mag and Maureen’s relationship can definitely be seen to affect the atmosphere of their home, with Maureen being arguable ‘trapped by Mag, who represents both an albatross hanging around Maureen’s neck and a responsibility which Maureen expects to continue fulfilling “from now ‘til doomsday.” [57]

In general, their whole relationship is portrayed as completely dysfunctional, as ‘Mag belittles and manipulates her daughter,’ with Maureen’s hatred of her mother growing throughout the text. [58] This malfunctional relationship is shown throughout the text through both character’s actions and language, with Mag using ill health as a tool to make Maureen bide to her every desire, with her repeatedly using her ‘urine infection,’ her ‘bad back’ and her ‘bad hand,’ as excuses for why Maureen must do everything for her. [59] It is also important to look at the way in which Mag never seems to show gratitude towards Maureen, instead continuing to belittle her, and moan about her own problems. One example of this is after Mag is given porridge when Pato stays over, with her shouting ‘loudly’ ‘me porridge is gone cold now!’ [60] This again shows the demanding attitude of Mag.

Indeed, it could be argued that at the end of the play Mag herself has pushed Maureen to breaking point, as on top of her normal actions, she also ‘destroys Maureen’s last (and possibly also her first) real opportunity to form a loving relationship with a man.’ [61] This can be seen as the tipping point in the dysfunctional relationship, as it goes from Maureen buying Kimberley biscuits ‘to torment me mother’ to the cold-blooded murder of her mother at the end of the text.

In regards to the idea of home, the actions of both Mag and Maureen present not only a dysfunctional family, but also a toxic home environment, with it being argued that ‘these actions arise not out of ‘evil’ but from ‘desperation.’ [62] This desperation refers to Mag’s desire not to be left alone, and Maureen’s need to escape from a home situation from which she sees no return.

When looking at the family relationship between Mag and Maureen, it is also important to mention the way that Maureen’s other sisters are not present in the play, and the affect that this on the family dynamic.

This is further developed in Trapped in Ireland: Violence and Irishness in McDonagh’s The Beauty Queen of Leenane, Norma Alfonso speaks of this absence of the sisters, stating that ‘two sisters have escaped into marriage and family life, but Maureen, with a history of mental illness, is trapped in that cottage and in an excessively dependent dysfunctional relationship with her mother.’ [63] Through this, it can be understood that the absence of the sisters place extra strain upon Maureen, as she has nobody else to help her with Mag. In turn, if this is considered it could indeed make the audience wonder whether the play would have had a different outcome if the sisters were still around.

In conclusion, this essay has looked at various aspects of home and family in The Beauty Queen of Leenane. It has explored the house of Mag and Maureen itself, investigating the representation of Ireland as a Home in relation to specific items found in the house itself. Through this it has also looked at the opinions of Maureen and Pato on emigration, again looking at the idea of Ireland as a cultural home for both characters. Finally, the essay then looked at the home life of Mag and Maureen, concentrating upon the dysfunction of their relationship, and the way that this affects their home life. It has found that overall, the text itself is very much concerned not only with the dysfunctional mother/daughter relationship, but also in the way emigration and globalisation has changed the character’s perceptions of Ireland as a home.

 

 

 

Bibliography 

 

An Taisce, Ireland’s Peatlands [Accessed Online: 07/05/2016] <http://www.antaisce.org/issues/irelands-peatlands>

 

Clarke, Donal, Brief History of the Peat Industry in Ireland [Accessed Online: 07/05/2016] <http://www.heartland.ie/articles/brief-history-peat-industry-ireland>

 

Diehl, Heath A., Classic Realism, Irish Nationalism, and a New Breed of Angry Young Man in Martin McDonagh’s “The Beauty Queen of Leenane” [Accessed Online: 01/05/2016] <http://www.jstor.org/stable/1315142&gt;

 

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McDonagh, Martin, The Beauty Queen of Leenane (United Kingdom: Bloomsbury Methuen Drama, 2014)

 

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[1] The Oxford Dictionary, Definition of House in English [Accessed Online: 02/04/2016] <http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/house>

[2] Gerry Smyth, Jo Croft, Our House: The Representation of Domestic Space in Modern Culture [Accessed Online: 02/04/2016] <http://site.ebrary.com/lib/falmouth/reader.action?docID=10380232> p. 12

[3]Shelter, What Makes a Decent Home [Accessed Online: 02/04/2016] <http://england.shelter.org.uk/campaigns_/why_we_campaign/the_housing_crisis/what_is_the_housing_crisis/what_makes_a_house_a_home>

[4] Gregory McNamee, House vs. Home [Accessed Online: 03/04/2016] <http://www.vqronline.org/essays-articles/2015/12/house-vs-home>

[5]  McNamee

[6] Robert Frost, The Death of The Hired Man [Accessed Online: 03/04/2016] <http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems-and-poets/poems/detail/44261&gt; Line 142-143

[7] Frost, Line 147

[8] Smyth, Croft, p. 13

[9]Adam Hanna, Northern Irish Poetry and Domestic Space [Accessed Online: 17/04/2016] <https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=3I6kCgAAQBAJ&dq=editions:ISBN1137493704> p. 6

[10] Martin McDonagh, The Beauty Queen of Leenane (United Kingdom: Bloomsbury Methuen Drama, 2014) p. 5

[11] Patrick Lonergan, Critical Companions : The Theatre and Films of Martin McDonagh (1) [Accessed Online: 01/05/2016] <http://site.ebrary.com/lib/falmouth/reader.action?docID=10535494> p. 8

[12] McDonagh, p. 5

[13] The Oxford Dictionary, Definition of Turf in English [Accessed Online: 07/05/2016] <http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/turf&gt;

[14] R. F. Hammond, Peatlands of Ireland, Soil Survey Bulletin; 1979 [Accessed Online: 07/05/2016] <http://www.teagasc.ie/environment/soil/Soil%20maps/Peatlands%20of%20Ireland/book.pdf> p. 1

[15] An Taisce, Ireland’s Peatlands [Accessed Online: 07/05/2016] <http://www.antaisce.org/issues/irelands-peatlands>

[16] Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, Ireland: Inventory Of Estimated Budgetary Support And Tax Expenditures For Fossil-Fuels [Accessed Online: 07/05/2016] <http://www.oecd.org/site/tadffss/IRL.pdf> p. 1

[17] Donal Clarke, Brief History of the Peat Industry in Ireland [Accessed Online: 07/05/2016] <http://www.heartland.ie/articles/brief-history-peat-industry-ireland>

[18] Clarke

[19] Smith, Croft, p. 13

[20] Lonergan, p.8

[21] McDonagh, p. 14

[22] McDonagh, p. 14

[23]McDonagh, p. 14

[24] Lonergan, p.8

[25] McDonagh, p. 14

[26] McDonagh, p. 8

[27] McDonagh, p. 8

[28] McDonagh, p. 8

[29] McDonagh, p. 9

[30] Lonergan, p. 9

 Irish cultural identity, yip, ic Space 16]he can do, earning the importance of said industry to Irish cultural identity, yip,

[31] Lonergan, p. 8

[32] Lonergan, p. 8

[33] Lonergan, p. 8

[34] Lonergan, p. 8

[35] McDonagh, p. 35

[36] Lonergan, p. 8

[37] Lonergan, p. 9

[38] McDonagh p. 14

[39] McDonagh, p. 26

[40] McDonagh p. 26

[41] McDonagh, p. 27

[42] McDonagh, p. 27

[43] McDonagh, p. 27

[44] McDonagh, p. 27

[45] Paddy Lyons, Alison O’Malley-Younger, Reimagining Ireland, Volume 4 : No Country for Old Men : Fresh Perspectives on Irish Literature [Accessed Online: 29/05/2016] <http://site.ebrary.com/lib/falmouth/reader.action?docID=10600497> p. 10

[46] McDonagh, p. 27

[47] Lonergan, p. 11

[48] Lonergan, p. 10

[49] McDonagh, p. 36

[50] McDonagh, p. 36

[51] Lonergan, p. 19

[52] McDonagh, p. 5

[53] McDonagh, p. 5

[54] McDonagh, p. 6

[55] Heath A. Diehl, Classic Realism, Irish Nationalism, and a New Breed of Angry Young Man in Martin McDonagh’s “The Beauty Queen of Leenane” [Accessed Online: 01/05/2016] <http://www.jstor.org/stable/1315142&gt; p. 99

[56] Katharine Tynan, Any Woman [Accessed Online: 08/05/2016] <http://www.poemhunter.com/poem/any-woman/> Lines 1/ 11

[57] Diehl, p. 99

[58] Lonergan, p. 7

[59] McDonagh, p.6

[60] McDonagh, p. 39

[61] Lonergan, p. 7

[62] Lonergan, p. 7

[63] Alfonso, p. 241

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